CHD Information

What is CHD?

CHD stands for Congenital Heart Defect. A baby born with a heart that is abnormally formed has CHD. There are many different types of CHD. To date, over 40 types have been identified, yet little is known about most of them. Some types of CHD require immediate surgery to correct the defect, while others pose relatively little threat to the child.

CHD can be detected during pregnancy, through an ultrasound or fetal echocardiogram. After birth, CHD is often detected during pulse oximetry testing during newborn health screenings, but other times the only signs that something is wrong include cyanosis (bluish tint to the skin, fingernails, or lips), fast breathing, poor eating and excessive sweating, among others.

  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
  • Atrioventricular Canal Defect
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve
  • Coarctation of the Aorta
  • Complete Congenital Heart Block
  • Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries or Great Vessels
  • Coronary Artery Anomaly
  • Double Chamber Right Ventricle (DCRV)
  • Dextrocardia
  • DiGeorge Syndrome
  • Double Aortic Arch
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle
  • Ebstein’s Anomaly
  • Eisenmenger’s Syndrome
  • Endocardia Fibroelastosis
  • Holt-Oram Symdrome
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
  • Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome
  • Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • Isolated Non-Compaction of Left Ventricular Myocardium
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction
  • Long QT Syndrome
  • Major Aorta/Pulmonary Collateral Arteries
  • Marfan Syndrome
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse
  • Noonan Syndrome
  • Partially Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
  • Patent Ductus Arterious
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction
  • Single Ventricle
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage/Return
  • Truncus Arteriosus

This list was taken from This list is not comprehensive and was not compiled by doctors. It is provided for informational purposes only.

CHD Facts:

  • Congenital heart defects are the #1 birth defect worldwide.  Nearly one of every 100 babies is born with CHD.
  • There is no known cause for CHD.  Only 15 – 20% of CHDs are related to genetic conditions.
  • Congenital heart defects are the leading cause of all infant deaths in the United States.
  • Each year in the U.S., nearly 40,000 babies with CHD will be born.  Thousands will not live to see their first birthday and thousands more will die before reaching adulthood.
  • Pulse oximetry is a simple test that can be performed during newborn checkups to help detect some types of CHD. Early detection is crucial to saving little hearts.
  • More than 50% of all children born with CHD will require at least one invasive surgery in their lifetime.
  • Surgery does not always cure CHD.  Many Heart Heroes will require additional surgeries and lifelong maintenance to sustain their heart health.

These stats were provided by The Children’s Heart Foundation and other sources.  They are provided for informational purposes only.